**Learning Statistics with SPSS ***/ HYPOTHESIS TESTING*

**Hypothesis Testing**

**Contents:
One-Sample T-Test**

Two-Samples T-Test: Independent
Samples

Paired-Samples T-Test: Dependent
Samples

Chi-Square Test of Independence

One-Way ANOVA or F-Test

Non-Parametric Tests

Other Tests

[**Command Sequence**:** Analyze/Compare
Means/One-Sample T Test/Options/
Confidence
Interval]**

**Note**: Select **variable** and **test value** at the **One-Sample T test**
window. You may optionally supply your own **level of significance (the default
value is .05 because the default confidence level is .95)** in the **Confidence
Interval** box after opening the **Options** window.

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###

**TWO-SAMPLES T-TEST: INDEPENDENT SAMPLES**

[**Command Sequence**:** Analyze/Compare
Means/Independent-Samples T Test**/**
Define Groups/Options/Confidence Interval]**

**Note**: At the **Independent-Samples T Test** move the **test variable** into
the **Test Variable(s)** box and the **grouping variable**
into the **Grouping Variable**. Click on **Define Group**
button and specify the value for group 1 (e.g., **yes**) and the value for
group 2 (e.g., **no**). Then click on the **Options**
button and set the level of significance (the default confidence level of 95% implies that
the level of significance is 5%).

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###

**PAIRED-SAMPLES T-TEST: DEPENDENT SAMPLES**

[**Command Sequence**: **Analyze/Compare
Means/Paired-Samples T Test/
Paired
Variables/Options/Confidence Interval]**

Note: At the **Paired-Samples T Test** window fill the **Current
Selections** box by clicking on the pseudo variables
(e.g., Before and After) one at a time. The first (e.g., After) is labeled as **Variable
1**, and the second (e.g., Before) is labeled as **Variable 2**. Click
on the arrow (now pointing to the right) to define the difference **d**_{i} =
After - Before in the **Paired Variable** box. Open the **Options**
menu and set the **level of significance** (the default confidence level of
95% implies that the level of significance is 5%).

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**CHI-SQUARE TEST OF INDEPENDENCE**

[**Command Sequence**: **Analyze/Summarize/Crosstabs**]

**Note**: At the **Crosstabs** windows **1)**
move one variable **Rows** box and the other to the **Columns**
box; **2)** Open **Statistics** window and check the **Chi-Square**
box; **3)** open the **Cells** window and check the **Expected**
box; **4)** optionally you may check **Rows, Columns, Totals**
boxes under Percentages.

**ONE-WAY ANOVA OR F-TEST**

[**Command Sequence: Analyze/Compare
Means/One-Way ANOVA**]

**Note**: At the** ***One-Way *window do the
following: (1) move the **Response Variable (Dependent Variable**) to the **Dependent
List** box, (2) move the **Factor (Independent Variable)** to the
**Factor** box, (3) open the **Options**
window and check the **Statistics** box.

[**Command Sequence**: **Statistics/...**]

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[**Command Sequence**: Analyze/...]

Note:

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##### Copyright © 1996 Ebenge Usip, all rights reserved.

Revised: June 29, 1998.